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Early Childhood in Australia: The Social Context代寫

Early Childhood in Australia: The Social Context代寫

Early Childhood in Australia: The Social Context
.Early Childhood in Australia: The Social Context代寫
Early childhood is crucial for the development of a child. Compared with the past,
Early childhood in Australia changed a lot. The development of a child depends on the environment he lives in, that is to say, the social context plays a significant role in the process of a child’s development. In some way, early childhood can be regarded as the most important period for a person’s life. This essay gives a comprehensive study over the factors that influence the development of system a child. According to Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory, the ecological including four layers. Each layer is interrelates with each other. For example, conflict within any layer ripples throughout other layers. By creating these systems, Bronfenbrenner was the leader in introducing pre-searchers into exploring the family, political, and economic structures as influencing the development of a child into adulthood. This paper will intend to better understand the findings of Bronfenbrenner as it relates to child development, also look at environmental influences on the whole child’s development and finally how it relates to early education programs.
At first, this essay will make a general overview of the factors that influence children’s development. Secondly, it will illustrate each factor in details combining with some sociological knowledge and theories. Then the essay will discuss exact case of two suburbs: West Pymble and Mount Druitt and make comparison and contrast between them. Finally, the passage will make a conclusion and make some recommendations as well for the development of a child.
 
1.0  Overview of Bronfenbrnner’s Theory
According to Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory the development of a child decided by the relationships between the child and his/her environment. But the immediate environment alone is not enough to evaluate the development of a child, the interaction among the larger environment that a child develops in is very important as well in the process of evaluating a child’s development (Brazelton, T.B. & Cramer, B. G.., 1991). The theory of Brefenbrenner’s ecological system can be divided into four layers. The first layer is microsystem. Microsystem means the relationships that directly relate to the child. Those relationships including: family, religious, school, neighbors and institution. Of all the relationships family is the most significant and crucial one. The ecological theory of Bronfenbrenner emphasizes that it plays a major role to children’s development. Besides, environment and child’s body are closely connected to the microsystem too. The second layer is Mesosystem. It emphasizes on the interaction between teacher and parents as well as the relationship between family and child’s peers. The third layer is exosystem. It involves parent’s workplace and funding for education, put it simply, it means, institutions in society that influence children’s development indirectly. These influence a child’s development through affecting structures in the microsystem. The final layer is macrosystem. This system involves a wide rage of factors, such as cultural context, values, customs, beliefs and laws of culture in which a child grows up. These factors consciously or unconsciously influence the ways teacher and parents raise a child. Also it will influence financial resources, societal values, legislation provided by a society to assist the function of families. Besides it influences interactions among all other layers (Farrar, Goldfeld &Moore 2007).
 
2.0 Factors Influence Early Childhood
 
  2.1 Work and families
For many people, hardships in both family and work life may compromise their ability and destroy their passion so that to make them incapable of realizing one or both roles effectively. Since paid work is the major approach to get access to financial and material resources, engagement in family and paid work is the main aspect of social participation. It is greatly depends on paid work that parents improve themselves and their children’s life quality and satisfy the basic needs of family. However, personal disabilities and home front could impede or reduce the chances to join in community life. Although mothers still do a lot of housework yet they do much less than they used to- a trend has been fostered by the increasing of domestic violence, pre-cooked meals, introduction of labor-saving devices and non-parental childcare. At the same time, fathers have been expected to pay more attention to the child in the child care process. According to the investigation (Conger, R.D., & Elder, G., H. 1994), children under the age of 10 share more time with their mother rather than father. There is no wonder that children share more time with their father on weekend when compared with weekdays. On average about 3 hours on weekdays and 6-7 hours on weekends.
 
 
  2.2 Education
The definition of school curriculum is the point that it is a planned, school-based intervention that was composed of outcomes concentrating on what concepts, knowledge and skills and statements of objectives are considered significant together accompany with leaning, regarding teaching and assessments (Farrar. E. Goldfeld, S. & Moore T., 2007). Compared with the past, Australian received a much better education. Many of them were well educated. It is certain that a nation of people with expertise, skills, and knowledge is enough to make sure the prosperity and security of the future. Let’s take a look at the school choice in Australia. Governmental school is the most popular type in there. It holds the chief power of school education in Australia, all together with 2,342,379 students. Other school types, like Catholic Schools and Independent Schools account for 736,599 attending students and 511,020 students respectively. The number of students almost tripled from 2011 to 2012. The fastest proportional growth is independent school, at a growth rate of 1.8%. Besides, student number in Catholic school and governmental school increased by 1.2% and 1.7% respectively(Apple Mw. 2000. Over the past decades, Australia has witnessed a period of fundamental change in child care market.  
 
 
 
 
  2.3 Media
In fact, when it comes to media it is usually connected with latest technologies because one is often based on the other. Media is a double sword it brings both benefits and concerns, especially for young adults. Technology and media have their own special characteristic that gradually become more apparent than they are defined. Most of the mass media relate to children is now delivered in the similar way and further similar environment. Information technologies such as communicative networks, mass media context and computer are formed in the same digital platforms like iPad and internet-based smart phones. Most of the families in Australia have plenty of media technologies in their home. For this reason, the children in Australia have the chance to get access to the latest technologies. It is obvious that children who are 8 years of age have expose to many old modes of media, like video players, telephones, television and so on. At an older age, they can access to more interactive media like computers and video games. The use of interactive media has been increasing since the age of four however, the old modes of media continue to have the advantage over the interactive media.
 
One of the interesting findings is that there is large proportion of users of new technologies in US even for very young children, such as iPod, smart phones and iPads. These tools can make them get access to interactive software and Apps predetermined media context. The same trend also can be seen in Australia homes, where children use a wide range of portable and innovative technologies, such as iDevices and Nintendo DS (including Android tablets, iPods, and iPhones). These technologies make it easier for parents and children to get access to interesting games and latest information, with newly identified implications. Besides, in Australia, it is pretty hard to separate technology and curriculum objectives. They are closely related in the process of education. The constantly increasing use of screen-based technologies and interactive whiteboard are enough to show the importance of technology in the educational process. On one hand, children’s engagement with media is like to their engagement with technology. But on the other hand, they have a lot of differences. From the perspective of similarities, one can tell that most of the technologies used by young adults are multimodal and screen-based. Some students even use technology and media to detriment of other things, for example, outdoor activities because of the multiple functions of them. In addition, due to the wide spread and unique appeal of mass media, a lot of students contact with each other by sharing the experiences about media.
 
  2.4 Social class
Early Childhood in Australia: The Social Context代寫
Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory tells people the transactional concept of readiness to learn (Bronfenbrenner’s, 1979). This theory emphasizes on the dynamic interactions among context, person, and process and multiple interactions. According to one of the most widely accepted poverty lines about one in seven families in Australia with incomes more than 50 percent live under the average medium income level (Curtis, P.A., & Simons, K.A., 2008). This is a rate higher than most of the European countries. What’s more, it is still higher in the group of excellent children. The result of investigation in 1990s shows that almost half of the excellent students have been suffering from poverty. Most of them were born in families with income more than 50 percent lower than the average income level. (Ross & Mikalauskus, 1996). In today’s Australia, poverty is not an uncommon phenomenon but a significant issue that will greatly impact the early education and future development of the children... Currently many experts insist that the readiness to learn does not rely on the children themselves. They completely own the success of a child to the intersection of person, context and process. One the contrary, the readiness to learn is indeed a shared responsibility. Money alone is not enough to achieve the success of a child. Cares and influence from parents, relatives, friends and others all these contribute to a child’s success. This new definition offers a ecological framework for this concept, which holds that readiness to learn is depend on the disposition and ability of a child as formed by their parental care, early education, experiences and multiple environment in which people grow and live. And of all multiple factors hone environment, parental practices and parental care are much more important to development of a child than community environment and childcare.
 
 
 
3.0  Case Analysis West Pymble and DruittEarly Childhood in Australia: The Social Context代寫

Both of the two suburbs are in Australia. The two suburbs have same number of primary school. The number of secondary school in Druitt is 6 and there is no secondary school in West Pymble. When it comes to the demographics, the two suburbs have many differences too. In Mount Druitt most of the population is youth, youth account for 65% of the whole population. While in West Pymble, the main part of the population is aging people. Aging people account for more than half of the population. This is because of the lower educational qualification in Mount Druitt and higher rate of engaging in working in West Pymble. Besides, the employment rate in West Pymble is higher than Mount Druitt, this may caused by the differences in education. The low level of education may be one of the reasons. There are more schools in West Pymble than in Mount Druitt. It is well known that education is the most powerful weapons to the development of one area. Besides, the low employment in Mount Druitt may be caused by the relatively poor economic conditions in this area; because of this they can only have limited opportunities to find jobs.  
 
 Early Childhood in Australia: The Social Context代寫
4.0 Conclusion
As sketched above, parents should create a relatively good environment for children to grow in it. The practice from parents and families are extremely significant for a child’s development, it is the criteria that will directly influence a child’s development. As for teenagers they should engaged more in paid work rather than solely in study. A good quality of education is indispensible if a nation wants to make it self powerful. For children over 2 years should receive age-appropriate education about television and other media as well, for the purpose of guiding them to use mass media and technologies properly. By this way, children can gain a lot of information from mass media, and study hard in schools with the help of mass media. For many students who live in rural area they were limited by their environment and have little opportunities to learn things they like so that to lead to developmental deficits. But their pathways towards improved outcomes can be redirected by early intervention programs. These programs contain those that extend into elementary school and integrated programs that take advantage of child care centers and schools as community bases for the delivery of various services. In a word, it is a shared responsibility to make a child grow healthily. It requires the efforts from all the aspects, such as family, environment and government.
 
 

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