Through the quantitative and qualitative studies, readers could examine and understand how tween girls and teen girls in Hong Kong interact with the media and how they interpret the messages from the media. Males received significantly more wounds than female baboons, and both sexes received the most wounds at ages when they competed most intensely for rank. Social mammals, specifically primates, provide an excellent system to explore this question because of differences between the sexes that apply to many social mammalian species; females remain in their natal group for life i. Females included in the female reproductive state analysis were between 3 and 22 years of age. All staff were strictly prohibited from harassing the baboons, and tourists must maintain a distance of at least 10 m from wildlife.
This study is among the first to quantify the risk of injury for competitors of different sexes, ages, and ranks in social groups. We analyzed 20 years of long-term data on wounds among olive baboons Papio anubis in Gombe National Park, Tanzania. However, comparatively few studies have directly quantified the risks of competition by linking competition with the incidence of physical wounding. In these jurisdictions, it is illegal to have sexual intercourse outside of marriage, so the de facto age of consent is the marriageable age. Circumstances of the relationship In several jurisdictions, it is illegal to engage in sexual activity with a person under a certain age under certain circumstances regarding the relationship in question, such as if it involves taking advantage of or corrupting the morals of the young person. In addition to monthly reports, daily demographic records also note the number of fresh wounds. Thus, males typically do not engage in intrasexual competition for females until dispersing to new groups Packer a ; Pusey and Packer The risk of wounding did not depend on rank in females but rose with rank in immigrant males. These scores were sorted into 5 categories: Close-in-age exemptions Some jurisdictions have laws explicitly allowing sexual acts with minors under the age of consent if their partner is close in age to them. Social mammals, specifically primates, provide an excellent system to explore this question because of differences between the sexes that apply to many social mammalian species; females remain in their natal group for life i. Thus, direct aggressive competition is often most intense between young, high-ranking immigrant males Packer b ; Yoccoz et al. We then calculated an expected ratio of injured females and wounds according to the typical time females spent in each reproductive state: In Kuwait, this means that boys must be at least 17 and girls at least 15 years old. In both the United Kingdom and Western Australia, for example, the age of consent was originally 21 for same-sex sexual activity between males with no laws regarding lesbian sexual activities , while it was 16 for heterosexual sexual activity; this is no longer the case. The Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings which came into force in also deals with commercial sexual exploitation of children. Female reproductive state To address when females were at greatest risk of injury, we noted both the number of injured females and number of wounds to females that were cycling, pregnant, or lactating. The sex of each participant can also influence perceptions of an individual's guilt and therefore enforcement. These include Canada in —from 14 to 16 ; and in Europe, Iceland in —from 14 to 15 , Lithuania in —from 14 to 16 , Croatia in —from 14 to 15 , and Spain in —from 13 to In this paper, we analyze the age-, sex-, and rank-specific risks of wounding in a long-term field study of olive baboons Papio anubis in Gombe National Park, Tanzania, to test the following hypotheses: Therefore, adult females are expected to employ behaviors that limit the survival of unrelated juvenile females, though documented examples of adult females selectively harassing immature females remain rare for toque [Macaca s. Agonistic interactions between individuals inevitably involve risks of physical injury Clutton-Brock et al. However, individuals in their natal group often show reduced sexual attraction toward close kin Packer a ; Pusey ; Bolhuis et al. Ages can also vary based on the type of calendar used, such as the Lunar calendar ,  how birth dates in leap years are handled, or even the method by which birth date is calculated. Our results support the prediction that individuals target aggression toward present and future competitors and suggest that sexual coercion increases the risk of wounding in cycling females.
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