Random effects were estimated with the likelihood ratio test following Littell et al. Eggs were distributed as evenly as possible between the groups. The same model, but without covariate, was used when testing for sex-, bib- and head color males only -specific differences in SVL and body mass. Moreover, in males, different color morphs have been shown to vary in the temporally-dependent increase of plasma testosterone during the day. Measurements of the second toe were considerably less repeatable than those of the third and fourth toe, presumably because this toe is shorter and, hence, more, susceptible to measurement error.
Moreover, in males, different color morphs have been shown to vary in the temporally-dependent increase of plasma testosterone during the day. Because hatchling toes are much smaller than adult toes, we used a stereomicroscope Leica MZ7. However, a link between morph and digit ratio is logically appealing because morph expression in lizards is known to be under the influence of prenatal sex hormones  ,  , . As such, digit ratio may provide a useful tool to study temporal or spatial differences in the proximate hormonal mechanisms modulating physiological and behavioural phenotypes. Thus, we simply assumed that C. Both right and left foot 3D: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Sex hormones are important as regulators in the process of sexual differentiation mediating the expression of sexually dimorphic traits  , . To assess the influence of prenatal testosterone on digit ratio, we experimentally manipulated egg testosterone levels by in ovo injection of either testosterone dissolved in sesame oil or sesame oil only control into newly laid eggs. Each digit was measured three times and the mean of these measurements was used in analyses. The same model, but without covariate, was used when testing for sex-, bib- and head color males only -specific differences in SVL and body mass. In , no red-headed males were caught and, hence, only three male head color categories are included in the analyses. However, it has also been suggested that maternally derived sex hormones may directly influence digit development without the involvement of homeobox genes see  for a more detailed discussion on alternative mechanisms explaining the link between digit ratio and sex hormone dependent traits. For breeding, wild-caught adult male and female painted dragons were brought to holding facilities at Wollongong University. We used the same approach as described above with the 3D: Furthermore, we show that experimental elevation of yolk testosterone significantly increases 3D: In males, bib expression is associated with higher reproductive success and presumably reduced investment in self-maintenance  , . We chose the hind feet because there toes are longer and, hence, easier to measure. Measurement of adult morphometrics A total of 75 males, 61 females adult individuals were captured at Yathong Nature Reserve. Correlative studies have found significant relationships between digit measures and phenotypic characters that are known to be under the influence of sex hormones e. However, as has been pointed out by others  ,  , the result of this study was based on a relatively small sample size 32 pups from 6 mothers and the authors did not control for the effect of common origin. Sex-specific differences in lizard digit ratios have been reported previously  ,  ; but see  , but morph-specific variation in digit ratio has never been examined. Furthermore, we included oviposition date as second covariate to control for potential differences with respect to clutch number i. Although this is a crude estimate, it is unlikely this resulted in egg testosterone levels outside the natural range of the species. Repeatabilities based on 13 hatchlings measured twice by M. Like females, which are not polychromatic with respect to head color, these males have uniformly greyish-brown heads.
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