However, European adolescents are more likely than U. During this same period, there were declines in broader instruction about sexual orientation, abortion, and where to go for birth control and STD services. There has been little well-executed research on the effectiveness of abstinence-only education for adolescents. Finer LB et al. Mitchell KJ et al. Federally funded abstinence education programs are required by law to teach "that sexual activity outside of the context of marriage is likely to have harmful psychological and physical effects" and "that a mutually faithful, monogamous relationship in the context of marriage is the expected standard of human sexual activity"; discussion of the benefits of contraception is prohibited in these programs.
Family Health International, ; and Kirby D, , op. The highest unintended pregnancy rates among these states were found in Arkansas 41 per 1, women younger than 20 , Oklahoma and Tennessee. However, the general lack of demographic differences in the timing of abstinence education prior to first sex is noteworthy in its contrast to the differentials observed for birth control education. Past reviews have identified a range of program characteristics that influence the effectiveness of sexual risk reduction interventions for adolescents, including a focus on curriculum development, content and implementation—all factors that likely varied across the formal instruction reported here by adolescents. We measured the prevalence of each type of instruction, alone and in combination, as well as the proportion of adolescents who had received instruction in neither topic. Are you ready to hear and respond? December 1, DOI: This proportion has remained relatively stable since In , New Mexico had the highest adolescent pregnancy rate 62 per 1, women aged 15—19 , followed by Arkansas, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Texas and Louisiana. In , there were significant differences among subgroups of male adolescents in the receipt of formal instruction. Figure 2 shows that among females, there was no significant difference between the timing of abstinence education and birth control education median ages, These services helped adolescents to avert , unintended pregnancies, , unplanned births and 76, abortions. HPV is extremely common, often asymptomatic and generally harmless. The Alan Guttmacher Institute, Sex education: There is a continued need for research on the direct causal links between education received and relevant behaviors that follows teenagers over an extended period of time. Denford S et al. The large changes in the content of sex education described here warrant substantial investigation of its impact on adolescents' reproductive health knowledge, behaviors and outcomes. Only one out of three sexually experienced black males and fewer than one in two sexually experienced black females had received instruction about birth control methods prior to first sex, as compared with two-thirds of their white peers; proportions among Hispanic teenagers were also significantly lower than those for white teenagers. From each of the data sets examined, we developed measures of whether respondents had received "formal instruction" before they were 18 years old about methods of birth control and abstinence. In , four pregnancies occurred per 1, females aged 14 or younger. Among females in , there were fewer subgroup differences. Contraceptive Use Among U. Santelli JS et al. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, , 38 4: Comprehensive Results, , accessed Aug. Kirby D, Emerging Answers: However, the proportions were generally unchanged between and —
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