Living in a community with a high level of educational attainment may also provide a model of behavior against which young women can judge their decisions on sexual behavior; young women living in communities in which educational levels are high may have more opportunities to observe alternative patterns of behavior open to them and to identify pathways to accrue social and human capital. Trained coordinators first consented parents and then obtained assent from youth. Hence, certain elements of the community-level variation in reports of risky sexual behaviors remained unexplained for young women in all 3 countries and for young men in Burkina Faso. Pacific Institute for Women's Health; Reproductive health risk and protective factors among youth in Lusaka, Zambia. As such, information on community health facilities and ongoing community educational and behavioral change activities is missing from the analysis, an absence that is probably reflected in the significant random effects terms.
Among young men, a significant relationship between educational attainment and reports of risky sexual behavior was observed only among those in Ghana with a secondary-level education. After I controlled for all of the independent variables included in the models, the random effect term remained significant for young women in all 3 countries but was significant for young men only in Burkina Faso. Residence in a community with high male educational attainment reduced reporting of risky sexual behaviors among both young men and young women in Burkina Faso, whereas high female educational attainment reduced reporting of risky sexual behaviors among young men in Zambia. Alan Guttmacher Institute; None of the factors was significantly intercorrelated with any other factor at the 0. Research on sexual expectancies among adolescents has also focused on gender differences in sexual expectancies. Sexual Expectancies and Sexual Behavior In social cognitive theory Bandura, , an individual who expects the outcome of a behavior to be positive is more likely to engage in and master that behavior than a person who holds negative expectations about that behavior. Sisk said she believes that a combination of hormones and experiences affect brain development during puberty and adolescence. This early curiosity and age-appropriate experimentation are normative; however, if experimentation elevates to risky sexual behaviors, young people may be exposed to potentially negative outcomes. Int Fam Plann Perspect ; Bohmer L, Kirumira E. Reproductive health risk and protective factors among youth in Lusaka, Zambia. Relationships between community employment and educational levels and reports of risky sexual behaviors varied. Sexual behavior of adolescents in Nigeria: Arch Sex Behav ; Access to Reproductive Health Services: She added that testosterone may be linked to structural changes in the brain, including how the dendrites are organized or connected to one another. Furthermore, it poses a challenge for HIV intervention programs, which must tackle the dual issues of male sexual risk behaviors and barriers to condom use within married couples. Accessed June 9, Sexual behavior and contraceptive knowledge and use among adolescents in developing countries. This situation raises concern with regard to the risk of within-couple HIV transmission if the male partner is engaging in risky sexual behaviors outside of the union. Female adolescent sexual behavior in Calabar, Nigeria. Exploratory factor analysis using principal component analysis with varimax rotation was conducted on the 14 outcome expectancy items Table 1. The present study sought to answer the following research questions: Social work research has suggested that early sexual behaviors, including heavy kissing and sexual groping, may set the stage for increasing sexualized activities that can lead to penetrative sex Smith,
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