Based on existing research findings, we hypothesized that time-varying individual- and relationship-level factors, including relationship instability e. We calculated the incidence density of HIV and each STI, overall and separately for women and men, by dividing the number of new infections by the total number of person-years at risk calculated by summing the amounts of time at risk for each participant. We calculated descriptive statistics frequencies, medians, ranges for baseline variables, which were compared between women and men using logistic regression with clustered standard errors within couples. For example, armed robberies in public spaces have also generally declined since the peak in , when was an average of over reported incidents per month: The majority of participants self-identified as gay or bisexual, had never married, were employed, and had a high school education or greater. Incidence of HIV 1.
Participants were recruited through respondent-driven sampling and underwent a 2-h baseline interview and testing for HIV and syphilis. The authors find that the distribution of violence within Tijuana is uneven and reflects geographic, economic, and social divisions in the city. The findings from this study support a model of co-occurring psychosocial factors that increase the likelihood of sexual violence experiences among MSM. From to , couples underwent behavioral and biological assessments biannually for 24 months. In particular, the spread of human immunodeficiency virus HIV and other sexually transmitted infections STIs involves interactions that occur within relationship contexts 3. Thirty-nine percent reported sexual violence in the past year. The majority of participants self-identified as gay or bisexual, had never married, were employed, and had a high school education or greater. This longitudinal dyadic approach to inference allows for unrestricted correlations between the error terms across FSWs and their male partners over the entire sample period. We calculated descriptive statistics frequencies, medians, ranges for baseline variables, which were compared between women and men using logistic regression with clustered standard errors within couples. All participants contributed time at risk for each STI incidence calculation. As a result, prevention scientists have called for novel approaches to understanding and addressing interpersonal factors that exacerbate heterosexual HIV epidemics 5 , 6. Infection dates were estimated as the midpoint between the last known negative and first known positive test dates. Using targeted and snowball sampling methods, we recruited women in areas where sex work was known to occur Addressing Social and Economic Marginalization: Implement community policing in highly violent areas Improve public transportation and neighborhood accessibility More youth outreach and social development programs Recovery and creation of public spaces Combatting Organized Crime: Outcome assessment involved obtaining blood and urine samples biannually for 24 months to test for HIV, Treponema pallidum, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Chlamydia trachomatis. Confidence intervals were computed using a block bootstrap procedure with iterations in which couples were resampled with replacement. While behavioral interventions have increased condom use among FSWs and their clients 15 , improving condom negotiation and use within FSWs' intimate relationships has proven difficult Reduce dependence on the Kingpin Strategy Re-enforce local law enforcement capacity amid shifting crime dynamics Focused deterrence of violence Focus on preventing and stopping domestic violence Increase sensitivity to special victims in local policing Seasonal adjustments in force deployment and victim response efforts Getting Smart on Drugs: Participants received pre- and posttest risk counseling and HIV and active syphilis rapid test results immediately. We screened for active syphilis using rapid plasma reagin qualitative tests. A hierarchical multiple linear regression model predicting more experiences of sexual violence was tested. Among initially HIV-uninfected participants, 8 seroconverted during follow-up. For example, armed robberies in public spaces have also generally declined since the peak in , when was an average of over reported incidents per month: In an effort to explain these trends, the authors provide a general overview of the recent history of organized crime in Tijuana, with consideration of the role it has played in recent surges in violence.
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