No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. In addition, we expected that participants would rate such odors as highly hedonic. Cross-reactions with another glucocorticoids are: The volunteer was asked to provide a first basal 6 ml saliva sample; he was then given a written set of instructions and a verbal explanation about the rest of the procedure. Periovulatory axilla and vulva scents accounted for a general increase of interest in sex. Male participants also filled a questionnaire answering what was their sexual orientation; if they were in a long-term relationship same as women ; if they took anabolic steroids; if they were heavy drinkers or recreational drug users; if they smoked. Following the recommendations of Dickinson et al.
Payments were done the day they showed up to provide the samples or to the smelling test. For example, men and women perceive vaginal ovulatory secretions as less unpleasant and much less intense than secretions produced on the other days of the menstrual cycle We found that periovulatory axillary and vulvar odors increased testosterone and cortisol levels, with vulvar scents producing a more prolonged effect. Mean basal cortisol levels did not vary with relationship status. Following the recommendations of Dickinson et al. In addition, we expected that participants would rate such odors as highly hedonic. Increases in testosterone levels following mild intra-sexual competition in men also promote affiliative behaviors with women Forty-five women and men, all of them college students and unacquainted with each other, participated in the study. Every two men smelled odors from a single female: The hedonic properties of odors questionnaire had four questions: Collection of body odors When women presented to the laboratory 1 or 2 days before midcycle or before menstruation, they were given a clean, sterile cotton pad and a winged cotton panty protector wrapped separately in plastic bags, as well as one small roll of medical micropore tape. Therefore, although human steroid metabolites account for pheromonal-like effects 9 , provide relevant cues for mate choice 9 , 10 and signal ovulation see above , whether female scents increase male sexual arousal by way of neuroendocrine pathways is debatable. Upon awakening, they had to repack the cotton pad and the panty protector separately in the plastic bags and return them first thing in the morning around They were instructed to wear the cotton pad in the armpit overnight affixed with micropore tape and the panty protector taking care it covered all the vulvar zone for at least 8 h during the middle day of their menstrual cycle, and during the night 24 h before menstruation. We studied if smelling axillary and vulvar odors collected in the periovulatory and late luteal phases of young women modify salivary testosterone and cortisol levels, as well as sexual desire in men. They were also asked not to have sexual relations for 24 h before presenting to the lab. Once accepted as a participant, each woman was told to wait until the beginning of her next menstrual cycle and to present to the laboratory 1 or 2 days before reaching midcycle, and 2 or 3 days before she thought would start menstruating. Women were also required to abstain from sexual intercourse for 24 h before wearing and returning the garments, from taking afternoon or night showers, and from eating spicy or heavily spiced food on those days. Linear mixed models were also used to analyze the interest in sex questionnaire and the hedonic properties of scents, odor source being the only fixed effect, and female or air test number , male participants identities, and relationship status the random effects. Our expected balance design of 45 odor samples for menstrual phase per odor source became unbalanced because 13 women in the periovulatory phase did not provide the vulvar sample; 8 from the above women and 3 more did not return to provide the luteal samples, and another 8 women provided the luteal axilla but not the vulvar sample. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. A buzzer connected to a timer notified participants it was time to provide the sample. Our hormone sampling was not suitable for traditional repeated measures ANOVA, as odor sources for some women were missing and in the case of complete within-women samples, two distinct men breathed odors from a same female participant accounting for autocorrelation. Yet, studies concerning the role of female genital scents have been largely confined to vaginal secretions [review in Ref. Materials and Methods Participants Forty-five women age:
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