Hypothesis 4 Contraceptive Use and Method Instability: Economic Opportunity and Attainment Because of higher rates of poverty, lower-quality early education, greater labor market discrimination, and residence in more-disadvantaged neighborhoods, black women tend to have less education, lower employment rates, and fewer opportunities for economic attainment than white women Avery and Rendall ; Conley ; Isaacs ; Oliver and Shapiro ; Orr ; Proctor and Dalaker The specific analytic sample for each outcome is described in more detail in the next section. Family and Early-Life Experiences Compared with their more-advantaged counterparts, young women from disadvantaged backgrounds e. These strong preferences for delaying childbearing and marriage translate to contraceptive vigilance, given that the vast majority of young women have had sex by their early 20s Finer and Philbin This left respondents who contributed 25, weekly interviews in total. Hypothesis 1 Relationships and Sex: The question of whether poor women should bear children is at the heart of some ongoing welfare debates e. Measures Individual Characteristics Table 1 presents the distributions of race and other sociodemographic characteristics included in the models, among the full sample and separately by race.
Religious doctrine also tends to be negative toward contraception, but evidence is mixed about whether religiosity affects contraceptive use among those young people who have sex Manlove et al. Contraceptive non-use is higher among black young people than white young people; and among users, black young people are less likely to report highly effective methods e. Less use of highly effective contraceptive methods. Empirically testing these and other similar hypotheses requires dynamic data on sex and contraception use over time. First, we developed a rich set of measures integrating the relationships, sexual intercourse experiences, and contraceptive use of to year-old women over the first year of the RDSL study. The specific analytic sample for each outcome is described in more detail in the next section. The present study contributes to our understanding of these proximate determinants of pregnancy among young women in two important ways. For example, researchers have posited that poor women have more serious relationships at younger ages, which contributes to their higher risk of early pregnancy Edin and Kefalas , and that black women discontinue their contraceptive methods more frequently than other women Hammerslough ; Trussell and Vaughan An in-depth study of class and sexual behavior among college women found that young women from more-advantaged social backgrounds, who also had higher academic aspirations, delayed serious relationships and pregnancy in explicit recognition that their opportunity costs were high Armstrong and Hamilton Hypothesis 1 Relationships and Sex: This rich set of data allows, for the first time, an investigation of how race and other sociodemographic characteristics—both separately and in tandem—are related to dynamic pregnancy-related behaviors. In the United States, black young people grow up in more religious families than their white counterparts, with the vast majority attending historically black churches e. The research literature has suggested that 1 young women see their mothers or women in their neighborhoods as role models and imitate their behavior Axinn and Thornton ; Brewster ; Newcomer and Udry ; Thornton and Camburn ; 2 the often lower levels of parental supervision in disadvantaged households permit earlier and riskier sexual behavior Meade et al. Although overall pregnancy rates are higher at older ages, unintended pregnancies—which have been targeted for reduction by Healthy People goals in , , and 1 —peak at these ages Finer and Zolna The most innovative aspect of the RDSL study design was the second component of data collection—dynamic measurement of current pregnancy desires and pregnancy status, as well as characteristics of current relationships such as commitment level, sexual involvement, and contraceptive use —collected in weekly five-minute surveys over the following 30 months. Among women of all ages, the unintended pregnancy rate for blacks is more than twice that of whites Finer and Zolna , as is the percentage of unintended births Mosher et al. We find that net of other sociodemographic characteristics and adolescent experiences with sex and pregnancy, black women spent less time in relationships and had sex less frequently in their relationships than white women, but did not differ in the number of relationships they formed or in their frequency or consistency of contraceptive use within relationships. The life course perspective emphasizes the importance of the timing and sequencing of experiences across the lifespan and proposes that individuals make choices conditional on these experiences and within the constraints and opportunities available to them Elder ; Mayer Provider bias in contraceptive counseling Dehlendorf et al. Seven respondents were not included in our analytic sample because they completed only one journal in the first 12 months of the study. The journal component of the survey concluded in January , resulting in 57, weekly interviews. Further, we find that net of race and adolescent experiences with sex and pregnancy, women from more-disadvantaged backgrounds had fewer and longer and thus potentially more serious relationships, used contraception less frequently but not less consistently , and used less effective methods condoms than women from more-advantaged backgrounds. Less frequent and less consistent contraceptive use. Accordingly, we draw on the life course perspective to conceptualize the links among race, other sociodemographic characteristics, and sexual and contraceptive behaviors. Religiosity may have a differential racial impact on both young sex and contraceptive use.
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